Implemented experiments

This page contains all the experiments carried out in the Real-Time Economy project and their results. Find out about the experiments: click a title and read more.

  • Testing digital tax residence certificates of tax residence

    On 19 June 2023, the European Commission launched the FASTER initiative. The goal of the initiative and the proposed FASTER Directive is to improve the accuracy of withholding tax at source on dividends and to make the refunding of taxes paid in excess faster and safer. The FASTER Directive will introduce standardised procedures across the EU on interest and dividend income gained from cross-border investments. This will make the application of tax benefits determined in tax treaties simpler, smoother, and more cost-effective. A reporting system has also been proposed which would reduce the risk of tax fraud and misuse. The overall aim of the FASTER Directive is to remove obstacles on foreign investment, and the new rules are expected to come into force during 2027 – 2029.

    The FASTER initiative also involves a proposal for a European digital certificate of tax residence for confirming an investor’s country of residence for tax purposes. For instance, the digital tax residence certificate could be used to prove that the investor lives in Finland and is entitled to a reduced rate of tax-at-source on dividends in accordance with a tax treaty. The digital tax residence certificate should be an electronically signed PDF file readable by both humans and machines, or an optional attestation of attributes (digital certificate in a structured format) in a European digital identity wallet.

    The Real-Time Economy project’s digital business identity team is currently conducting technical trials in the MiniSuomi innovation ecosystem. Using test data, these trials test how a digital tax residence certificate could be requested from the Tax Administration, transferred to the company’s identity wallet, and forwarded to the bank.

    The results of the trials will be presented to banks, who can comment on whether the results are in line with their processes and needs. In a follow-up trial, tests could focus on systems integration with the MiniSuomi digital platform and be extended to digital identity wallets for individuals.


    The goal of the trial is to formulate a solution that would allow banks as well as the tax authorities in the source and target countries to reduce the manual processing of documents. The solution would allow the certificate of tax residence to be shared and certified in real time with the tax authority that issued it. It is easy for the data user to verify integrity and accuracy of the data. In the long term, the goal is to enable access to correct information on income recipients at the time of payment in as many cases as possible, which would reduce the need for submitting and processing applications for refund of tax withheld at source on dividends.

    Implementing the digital certificate of tax residence as an attestation of attributes in a digital wallet would serve the aims of other EU Directives as well as tax collection in general. For example, this solution would streamline the reporting obligations of operators in the platform economy (DAC7), the reporting and automatic information exchange on business transactions conducted with cryptocurrency (DAC8), the removal of international double taxation of income, and the accurate assessment of VAT in the country of sale (VAT In Digital Age, VIDA, One Stop Shop).

    Read more and watch the video: Tax residence certificate simplifies withholding tax procedures – Real time economy (


    24 October 2023 – 31 March 2024

    Further information

    Mikael Linden, mikael.linden(at)

  • Piloting digital product passport

    The digital product passport contains information about product features, such as the proportion of recycled materials in the product. The digital product passport is defined in the ecodesign for sustainable products regulation, and you can get it online, for example, using the product’s QR code.

    The digital product passport can be implemented in a number of different ways. The product manufacturer can save the digital product passport in a blockchain, in which it is publicly available as a certified document. The product passport must include verified details of the product manufacturer, and the manufacturer can check the data by, for example, using a digital wallet.

    The digital product passport pilot is carried out by STRGL, a tech studio specialising in the research on decentralised technologies. With its TREE® technology, the product manufacturer can obtain the verified details of the user’s digital identity from the elDAS-compliant business wallet of the MiniSuomi environment.

    In the system implemented in the pilot, the manufacturer’s verified identity is saved in the blockchain as part of the product passport data.


    The pilot will be carried out between March and May 2024.


    Finnish Tax Administration, STRGL

    More information

    Mikael Linden, mikael.linden(at)

  • Know Your Customer in banking

    Banks carry out a Know Your Customer (KYC) process when a company opens an account or becomes a customer to conduct other transactions. In a pilot carried out as part of the Real-Time Economy project, it was examined how the business digital wallet can make it easier for banks to meet their statutory KYC obligations.

    By law, banks must know their customers, and they also take measures to identify the customer for risk management reasons. When opening a bank account, a company provides the bank with documents on its financial situation, ownership structure and beneficial owners. In a survey carried out in the Real-Time Economy project, banks were asked what information they request and need when starting a customer relationship and there they would like to see improvements.

    Many of the KYC documents are in paper form, and supplying them and processing them in the bank involves manual steps. This creates costs, is highly time-consuming for the personnel, and makes processes more inflexible.

    It was examined in the experiment whether companies could supply the KYC documents as electronic attribute certificates from their elDAS wallets. The experiment was carried out with synthetic data in the MiniSuomi test environment. In the experiment, the Mini-PRH (Finnish Patent and Registration Office) built in MiniSuomi provided the test company with a trade register extract and a beneficial owners extract, and the test company supplied these documents together with a previously acquired tax residence certificate from its wallet to the Mini-Bank operating in MiniSuomi.

    Read the KYC blog and see the video

    The experiment was part of the Real-Time Economy project, in which the aim is to provide a basis for digital business startups and operations and to create a digital identity for companies. The aim is to examine the benefits of an elDAS-compatible business wallet for companies.


    The experiment was carried out between 1 January and 31 March 2024


    Finnish Tax Administration


    Heini Heinonen, heini.heinonen (at)

  • Using the business wallet concept in business

    A joint trial by Norway, Sweden and Finland in the MiniSuomi environment. The test data is used to see what the digital business wallet can accomplish and how it could be used.

    Trial partners

    Brønnøysund Register Centre (NO)
    Swedish Companies Registration Office (SE)
    Real-Time Economy project (FI)
    Ministry of Finance (FI)


    The time frame is tied to the pilot of the EUDI wallet consortium.

    A proof of concept (PoC) was implemented

    • How a Swedish company can request basic information from a Finnish company and vice versa
    • Where the information is located and who will hand it over
    • Use cases of the activities, demos of the technical solution and presentation of the results
    More about the trial: mikael.afhallstrom(at)

  • Offering eReceipts in government agencies

    The task was to compile the requirements for offering eReceipts in accounting units so that eReceipts can be offered, and to test eReceipt relaying in a purchase situation.

    The trial was based on the requirement that the accounting unit send eReceipts only if the customer has signed an eReceipt agreement with an eReceipt operator.

    Finnish Patent and Registration Office, CPU, ReceiptHero, Valtori and State Treasury

    December 2022

    More about the trial: pirjo.ilola(at)

  • Using the data in eReceipts

    Combining card purchase receipts with card invoices in a purchase invoice system.

    The trial also created a model report for purchase rows on card invoices for which eReceipts had not been received. This makes it easier to validate the card invoice in a purchase invoice system.


    Police, Valvira and State Treasury


    December 2022

    More about the trial: pirjo.ilola(at)

  • Peppol service metadata publisher (SMP) and Findy trial

    All Peppol users report their data related to the receipt of messages to the service metadata publisher
    service, SMP. This information includes the receiving addresses and supported messages and processes.

    The Peppol SMP and Findy trial managed to demonstrate that SMP can also maintain the address information needed by Findy. In addition, it was verified that the data content of Peppol messages can be used to create data sets (credentials) used by the trust network.


    Posti, TietoEvry, OP and the Real-Time Economy project


    Spring 2021

    More information

    Tapani Turunen, tapani.turunen (a)

  • One-off e-invoice for consumers

    In addition to pilots carried out in cooperation with banks, Apix Messaging Oy, Isolta Ltd, MobilePay Finland Oy and representatives of the State Treasury also launched pilots with one-time e-invoices intended for consumers in December 2021. The aim was to check that an e-invoice can be sent using Isolta’s invoicing software to a consumer’s MobilePay application and to determine which changes would be required in the invoice transmitting process. Apix acted as the e-invoicing operator in the pilot. Following a successful pilot, the first one-time e-invoices were transmitted to consumers in January 2022.


    Apix Messaging Oy, Isolta Oy, Mobilepay Oy and State Treasury


    January 2022

    More information:

    Tomi Rusi, State Treasury tomi.rusi (a)

    Read Tomi Rusi’s blog 21 March 2022 on one-off consumer invoicing

  • Experiments on sending data across national borders in the Peppol network

    Between spring 2021 and spring 2022, the State Treasury and the Tax Administration organised three trials on sending a product list, an e-invoice and a procurement message across national borders in the Peppol network.

    Peppol is a network developed by the international OpenPeppol association, through which different actors can transmit electronic business documents to each other. The trials were carried out in cooperation with the Nordic Smart Government and Business (NSG&B) programme. Read the Peppol information package and training material.

    NSG&B: Cross-border testing of Peppol product catalogues

    It was verified that software vendors have the capability to send a Peppol product catalogue to each other across borders. It was verified that the Peppol message can convey information about environmental responsibility (green data).

    Participants: State Treasury, Tax Administration
    Time: spring 2021

    NSG&B: Cross-border testing of Peppol e-invoicing messages

    It was verified that software vendors have the capability to send Peppol e-invoice messages to each other across borders.

    Participants: State Treasury, Tax Administration
    Time: autumn 2021

    NSG&B: Cross-border testing of Peppol procurement messages

    The State Treasury and the Tax Administration participated in a trial that verified that software vendors have the capability to send Peppol procurement messages to each other across borders.

    Participants: State Treasury, Tax Administration
    Time: spring 2022

    All three trials provided valuable information about marking value-added tax with VAT tax category codes and tax exemption reason codes (VATEX reason code) in the documents. These help develop VAT marking in documents and support the preparation of the new VAT directive (VIDA, Vat in the Digital Age).

    More information

    Pirjo Ilola, State Treasury pirjo.ilola (at) and Pasi Sinervo, Tax Administration pasi.sinervo (at)

    Read the news article on NSG&B’s e-invoice and procurement message trial

  • Peppol Training

    The training trial was conducted because the main obstacle to using Peppol procurement messages currently lies in the lack of related expertise. The trial was carried out in collaboration between the State Treasury and TIEKE Ry. They designed and built a training model specifically for trainers and tested it with a target group consisting of educational organizations. Trainers played a central role in enhancing the knowledge of other groups, such as end-users and service providers.

    The aim was to create a concrete practical example of a Peppol training program tailored for trainers. The developed model and lessons learned from the trial are shared openly so that other parties interested in training trainers can benefit from it. This approach promotes and accelerates the development of comprehensive Peppol expertise in Finland.

    Training Model

    The training aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of Peppol, including its background, potential benefits for organizations, Peppol processes, and how the implementation and onboarding should be conducted within organizations.

    The trial officially began in May 2023. An open workshop to prepare for the training was held on June 13, 2023. The pilot training series took place from late October to November. A workshop focused on gathering insights was held on November 15, 2023. The trial concluded as planned at the end of November 2023. The entire training was conducted remotely, allowing participants to ask questions and provide comments during the approximately two-hour sessions. The training covered four main topics: 1) Peppol basics, 2) Processes, 3) Integration, and 4) Peppol implementation and staff training.

    Trainers and end-users are free to utilize the materials from the pilot training. These resources are openly available on the Tieke website and YouTube channel in Finnish.

    Pilot Training 1:

    Pilot Training 2:

    Pilot Training 3:

    Pilot Training 4:

    Simultaneously, a customer understanding project was underway, providing valuable and useful information for the future.

    Change Management

    The Role of Software Companies Operator Requirements Simultaneously, a customer understanding project was underway, providing valuable and useful information for the future.


    Knowledge about Peppol is still quite limited. Increasing competence in Peppol is essential for widespread adoption of Peppol procurement messages in society. The project team recommends a new trial focused on training end-users to further enhance the training model for trainers.

    For more information about the trial:

    Noora Salonen, Valtiokonttori, 

, Updated 17.6.2024 at 13:25